IROS Full Day Workshop


Embodied Brain Systems Science

–from Body Representation in Human Brain

toward Rehabilitation Technology–

Schedule
08:30-09:00 Talk 1: Prof. Jun Ota (The University of Tokyo)
"Overview of embodied-brain systems science"
09:00-09:40 Talk 2: Prof. Keisuke Shima (Yokohama National University)
"EMG-Based Direct Rehabilitation Between Human and Human"
09:40-10:20 Poster Session & Coffee Break
10:20-11:00 Talk 3: Prof. Yasuhisa Hasegawa (Nagoya University)
"Embodiment of Extra-Robotic Finger Using Somatosensory Feedback"
11:00-11:40 Talk 4: Prof. Giulio Sandini (Istituto Italiano di Technologia)
"Visual Perception and Biological Motion: Which Visual Features Contribute to Body Representation?"
11:40-13:00 Lunch Break
13:00-13:40 Talk 5: Dr. Shingo Shimoda (RIKEN)
"Role of Muscle Synergy in NeuroFeedback Rehabilitation"
13:40-14:20 Talk 6: Prof. Hajime Asama (The University of Tokyo)
"The Role of Sense of Agency in Body Consciousness"
14:20-15:00 Poster Session & Coffee Break
15:00-15:40 Talk 7: Prof. Paul Verschure (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
"Bringing Embodied Theoretical Neuroscience to the Clinic: A Case Study in the Rehabilitation of Stroke"
15:40-16:20 Talk 8: Prof. Kazuo Kiguchi (Kyusu University)
"Realtime Motion Prediction with EEG"
16:20-17:00 Talk 9: Dr. Qi An (The University of Tokyo)
"Development of Assistive Device for Human Standing-up Motion based on Muscle Synergy"
Aim of This Workshop
In daily life, a human can recognize one’s own body and the surrounding environment adequately to achieve adaptive movement and to maintain posture despite sudden environmental changes and gradual body change. To realize these adaptive movements, we hypothesize that some cognitive mapper of the body (body representation) exists as a neural mechanism for estimating the body state and the environment around the body, utilizing information from the sensory–motor system. Body representation is developed through interaction between the human body and the surrounding environment. It is altered slowly by brain plasticity to adapt to changes of several conditions. Another key feature to develop body representation is a person’s self-consciousness and self-recognition of one’s own body (sense of ownership). This consciousness and recognition are also created, updated, and transformed through perceptual and motion experience. However when body representation is distracted as in cases of stroke, neurodegenerative disease, or amputation, it is expected to cause motor dysfunction. Alternatively, an amputee might recognize the personal body incorrectly and might even feel pain in a lost limb (i.e., phantom limb pain). These phenomena imply the possibility that humans have a body representation in the brain, and that severe problems occur in the sensory-motor system when the brain is injured. To develop effective rehabilitation and training methodologies for elderly people, post-stroke patients, and amputee populations, it is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanisms of body representation and to apply this knowledge to rehabilitation interventions.

To achieve the goals described above, we started a five-year research program in 2014 for "Understanding brain plasticity on body representations to promote their adaptive functions" funded by a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (FY2014–2018, PI: Prof. Ota) by MEXT, Japan. In our program, we have combined brain science and rehabilitation robotics using systems engineering. We thereby intend to gain an integrated understanding of motor control and somatognosia to create a new academic discipline known as embodied-brain systems science. To date, we have elucidated some biomarkers in the human brain which preserve body representation in the brain or mechanisms to develop body representation through interaction between the human body and the environment. Now we are at the next stage of promoting our research project further to develop novel rehabilitation technologies based on neural mechanisms of body representation and slow adaptation to environmental and body change. This workshop targets to cover the recent findings in brain mechanism including mathematical models of change of body presentation and human motor control. This workshop will further present and discuss recent advancement to utilize these findings to assistive devices for neurorehabilitation such as upper limb training systems using function electrical stimulation and VR technology, exoskeleton systems, and new prosthetics device. Not merely introducing our research outcomes, this workshop will invite outstanding researchers who work in fields of rehabilitation therapy and human cognition to discuss how one can create novel rehabilitation strategies.

Talk 1 (08:30-09:00)
"Overview of embodied-brain systems science"

QiAn Speaker:
Prof. Jun Ota (The University of Tokyo)

Biography: Professor Jun OTA is a Professor at Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo. He received B.E., M.E. and Ph.D. degrees from the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo in 1987, 1989 and 1994 respectively. From 2009, he became a Professor at Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo. From 2015, he is a guest professor of South China University of Technology. From 1996 to 1997, he was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University. He received RSJ (the Robotics Society of Japan) Fellow in 2016. His research interests are multi-agent robot systems, embodied-brain systems science, design support for large-scale production/material handling systems, human behavior analysis and support.

Abstract: Japan is now super-aged society, and we are experiencing a sharp increase in the number of patients of motor paralysis and other dysfunctions resulting from motor dysfunction, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, establishing effective rehabilitation techniques to overcome these motor dysfunctions is of paramount importance. The key to achieving this is to elucidate the mechanisms by which the brain adapts to changes in body functions. However, abnormalities in somatognosia can occur even in diseases that do not cause motor dysfunction. This indicates that we create and maintain a model of the body in the brain, which we call body representation in the brain. Embodied-brain program is one of the programs from Japan Society for the Promotion Science, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas, interdisciplinary area. Those are awarded to new research areas that will lead to the upgrading and enhancement of scientific research in Japan. The official name of the program is Understanding brain plasticity on body representations to promote their adaptive functions (program director: Professor Jun Ota, the University of Tokyo). This is five-year project from 2014 to 2018. The number of researchers in this program is about 130 now. Embodied-brain systems science is a new transdisciplinary research area with the integration of brain science, systems engineering, and rehabilitation medicine. We will address the problem of impaired motor function that is prevalent in our ultra-aged society because of the locomotor and neurologic disorders of old age. We will do this through the integrated academic discipline of "embodied-brain systems science." The targets of this program is as follows: (a) to construct model-based rehabilitation that intervenes in the representation of the body in the brain, (b) to describe the structure of the major brain functions essential to the existence of somatognosia and motor control and work toward common computational principles for them, and (c) to understand the plasticity of body presentation in the brain (slow dynamics) and develop technology that allows it to be controlled. An overview of embodied-brain systems science is introduced in this presentation.

Talk 2 (09:00-09:40)
"EMG-Based Direct Rehabilitation Between Human and Human"

Speaker:
Prof. Keisuke Shima (Yokohama National University)

Biography:

Abstract:

Talk 3 (10:20-11:00)
"Embodiment of Extra-Robotic Finger Using Somatosensory Feedback"

Speaker:
Prof. Yasuhisa Hasegawa (Nagoya University)

Biography:

Abstract:

Talk 4 (11:00-11:40)
"Visual Perception and Biological Motion: Which Visual Features Contribute to Body Representation?"

Speaker:
Prof. Giulio Sandini (Istituto Italiano di Technologia)

Biography:

Abstract:

Talk 5 (13:00-13:40)
"Role of Muscle Synergy in NeuroFeedback Rehabilitation"

QiAn Speaker:
Dr. Shingo Shimoda (RIKEN)

Biography: Shingo Shimoda received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical and electronic from the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, in 1999, 2001, and 2005, respectively. He spent as a visiting student at MIT in 2003-2004. He was a Research Scientist with the Biomimetic Control Research Center, RIKEN, Japan, in 2005. In 2008, he became a Unit Leader with RIKEN Brain Research Institute-TOYOTA Collaboration Center, Intelligent Behavior Control Collaboration Unit, Nagoya, Japan. He is principle chair of Technical Committee on Cognitive Robotics in IEEE Robotics and Automation Society.

Abstract: For rehabilitations, robots are usually used to support the paralyzed motions. Many of the patients, however, need the less support than the conventional robotics support but enough the specified inputs to activate the remaining motion control capability. Our concept for neurorehabilitation is to clarify the patient states from the behavior observations and provide the minimum support and try to use the patients’ motion control capability as much as possible. We show the results of several clinical test conducted based on our concept.

Talk 6 (13:40-14:20)
"The Role of Sense of Agency in Body Consciousness"

Speaker:
Prof. Hajime Asama (The University of Tokyo)

Biography:

Abstract:

Talk 7 (15:00-15:40)
"Bringing Embodied Theoretical Neuroscience to the Clinic: A Case Study in the Rehabilitation of Stroke" QiAn

Speaker:
Prof. Paul Verschure (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

Biography: Paul Verschure is Catalan Institute of Advanced Studies (ICREA) Research Professor, Director of the Center for Autonomous Systems and Neurorobotics at Universitat Pompeu Fabra and director of the neuro-engineering program at the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalunya where he runs the Synthetic Perceptive, Emotive and Cognitive Systems (SPECS) Laboratory (specs.upf.edu). He is founder/CEO of Eodyne Systems S.L. (Eodyne.com), which is commercializing a novel science grounded neurorehabilitation technology. Paul is founder/Chairman of the Future Memory Foundation (futurememoryfoundation.org) which aims at supporting the development of new tools and paradigms for the conservation, presentation, and education of the history of the Holocaust and Nazi crimes. He received his MA and Ph.D. in Psychology, and Paul's scientific aim is to find a unified theory of mind and brain using synthetic methods and to apply it to the quality of life enhancing technologies. His theory of mind and brain, Distributed Adaptive Control, has been generalized to a range of brain structures and robotic systems and has laid the foundation for a novel neurorehabilitation approach called the Rehabilitation Gaming System (http://specs.upf.edu/research_in_neurorehabilitation). Paul explores new methods for the simulation, visualization, and exploration of complex data to support his DAC theory and advance clinical diagnostics and intervention in neuropathologies (brainx3.com). Complementary to his science, Paul has developed and deployed over 25 art installations (http://specs.upf.edu/installations). These include the biomimetic mixed reality space Ada experienced by over half a million visitors (2002) and more recently three virtual/augmented reality educational installations and applications for the Memorial Site Bergen-Belsen (2012 - ) which is now generalized to other sites across Europe. Paul manages a multidisciplinary team of 30 researchers (specs.upf.edu) with whom he has published over 300 articles in leading journals and conferences in a range of disciplines. Paul collaborates with a wide network of international researchers. He has represented Switzerland at the Global Science Forum of the OECD, is chair of the annual Barcelona Cognition, Brain, and Technology summer school and co-chair of the annual Convergent Science Network’s conference Living Machines. Paul also hosts a podcast (csnetwork.eu/talks/podcast). He is the founder and academic director of the Interdisciplinary Master program Cognitive Systems and Interactive Media at University Pompeu Fabra.

Abstract: Over the last 20 years, we have developed the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC). DAC has successfully controlled a range of flying, mobile and humanoid robots and interactive mechatronic systems (see for a review Verschure, 2012) and generalized to several brain systems (see for a review Verschure, Pennartz, & Pezzulo, 2014). In this combined convergent approach DAC validates hypotheses on behavior, function, and structure and has given rise to advanced social robotic systems that can learn to represent self and other and to use systems of memory and learning to acquire language and communication strategies. As a further validation of the DAC theory, we have turned to the understanding and treatment of neuropathologies. In this talk, I will show how principles of the DAC theory on embodied and goal oriented learning have successfully generalized to the functional rehabilitation of stroke patients. Over 800 stroke patients have successfully used this DAC based Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS) at 20 centers across the world. We are currently validating the use of RGS in other neuropathologies including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, cerebral palsy and Alzheimer’s disease. This translation from the robotics lab to the clinic demonstrates that the DAC principles that guide robot perception, cognition and action can directly be of value towards recovering and rescuing these functions in humans.

Talk 8 (15:40-16:20)
"Realtime Motion Prediction with EEG"

Speaker:
Prof. Kazuo Kiguchi (Kyusu University)

Biography:

Abstract:

Talk 9 (16:20-17:00)
"Development of Assistive Device for Human Standing-up Motion based on Muscle Synergy"

QiAn Speaker:
Qi An (Department of Precision Engineering, The University of Tokyo)

Biography:
Qi received his B.E., M.E., and PhD from the University of Tokyo, Japan, in 2009, 2011, and 2014. From 2010 to 2011, he joined Yoky Matsuoka’s Lab as a visiting student at University of Washington, USA. From Nov.2014 to Mar.2015, he studied Martin Buss’s Lab as a visiting researcher at Technische Universitat Munchen, Germany. He is currently an assistant professor at the University of Tokyo. His research interest is to understand how humans modulate their muscle synergies to adapt different environments.

Abstract:
In order to utilize the concept of muscle synergy for online rehabilitation, it is necessary to know impaired structure of muscle synergy from patient movements and to decide the direction of rehabilitation. However, muscle synergy structure varied among patients, and it is not always easy to measure their muscle activity to identify synergy structure. In order to solve this problem, our study has focused on human standing-up motion and constructed a database of resultant movement from impaired muscle synergy structure. This database is constructed from forward dynamic simulation of human musculoskeletal model to calculate how standing-up motion changes according to the different structure of muscle synergy. It can therefore elucidate that what muscle synergies resulted in failure motion (e.g. falling down or unable to lift up their body) and how each synergy contributes to success of the standing-up motion. The database enables health care provider to detect impaired motor function from observed movement and it also suggests the rehabilitation direction to improve body function.